ŋaren crîþa 9 vlefto: Ŋarâþ Crîþ v9

Relationals

In this chapter, we cover relationals.

Valency and case frame

All predicates have at least a nominative-case argument (the subject). Most relationals are divalent; the second argument (the object) is dative by default.

Some relationals, such as ⟨tfel⟩ (S) is on the other side of (O) relative to (O′), are trivalent. In this case, one of the objects is termed the main object and the other is called the ancillary object. In divalent relationals, of course, the main object is the only one involved.

If a relational encodes a spatial relationship between one entity and another, then two additional relationals (relationals of motion) are derived: one encoding motion toward the main object (in which case the main object is accusative) and another encoding motion away from the main object (in which case it is dative for third- and sixth-declension nouns and abessive otherwise, although in colloquial language, the locative may be used instead).

When a fifth-declension noun is the object of the relational ⟦es⟧ (S) is contained inside (O); (S) is in progress of doing (O) (in static motion), it is inflected in the locative case rather than the dative.

Attachment and relational bias

A relational can be used adnominally or adverbially, that is, modifying either a noun phrase or a verb phrase. We call this distinction attachment. Adnominal usage simply places the affected noun phrase as the subject of the action depicted by the relational. Adverbial usage, on the other hand, does one of the following: (1) place the action depicted by the VP as the subject of the relational, (2) indicate that as a result of the action, a shifted subject of the VP starts to participate as a subject of the relational.

All relationals have a bias toward either adnominal or adverbial attachment. A relational with adnominal bias takes its lemma form when modifying a noun phrase but changes form when modifying a verb phrase. Conversely, a relational with adverbial bias takes its lemma form when modifying a verb phrase but changes form when modifying a noun phrase.

Relationals of motion always have adverbial bias, even when the base relational has adnominal bias.

Inflection

Each relational is in either the celestial or terrestrial gender and has an absolute (A) and a conjunct (C) form. The absolute form is a stem, while the conjunct form is a sequence of one or more simple syllables.

Modifying forms

The anatomy of a modifying form is [<object prefix>] + <absolute stem> + [<cast suffix>] + [<motion suffix>] for celestial relationals and [<cast prefix>] + [<object prefix>] + <absolute stem> + [<motion suffix>] for terrestrial relationals.

For celestial relationals, the cast suffix is used if the relational has the wrong bias for its usage. It is ⟦-en⟧ when an adverbially biased relational is used adnominally, and it is ⟦-al⟧ when an adnominally biased relational is used adverbially. These are changed to ⟦-n⟧ and to ⟦-l⟧ when immediately followed by a vowel of the same quality.

Likewise, the cast prefix is used for terrestrial relationals in the same situation. It is ⟦i-⟧ when an adverbially biased relational is used adnominally, and it is ⟦as-⟧ when an adnominally biased relational is used adverbially.

The object prefix is like the object affix in verb conjugation; in other words, it is used if the object is pronominal. Nevertheless, it has different forms:

Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
1st excl.e(l)-ec-en-ef-
1st incl.êc-ên-
2ndo-oc-on-of-
3rd celestialer-
3rd terrestrialos-
3rd humanan-or-ran-
3rd epiceneac-ren-fê(s)-
Reflexivece(n)-
Reciprocalre(þ)-
Table 1: Object affixes.

(The consonants in brackets are included only if the absolute stem starts with ⟦e-⟧ or ⟦ê-⟧.)

On relationals of motion, a motion suffix can be added to denote motion. The suffix for motion toward something is usually ⟦-ar⟧, but when the absolute stem ends with ⟦a⟧ or ⟦â⟧ and the cast suffix ⟦-en⟧ is absent, then the tone of the final vowel is inverted and ⟦-r⟧ is attached.

The suffix for motion away from something can be either ⟦-es⟧, ⟦-as⟧, or ⟦-jas⟧:

In trivalent relationals, the ancillary object affixes occur at the end of the relational. If there is no cast or motion suffix, then such a suffix occurs at an onset end:

Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
None-(e)s
1st excl.-ef-ecþ-if-af
1st incl.-êcþ-îf
2nd-or-ocþ-orþ-of
3rd celestial-ir
3rd terrestrial-jos
3rd human-aren-oł-ens
3rd epicene-ac-erþ-∅
Reflexive-ef
Reciprocal-iren
Table 2: Ancillary object affixes (for onset ends).

Otherwise, the ancillary object suffix occurs at a syllabic end and a different set of suffixes is used:

Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
None-(e)s
1st excl.-ef-ecþ-if-af
1st incl.-êcþ-îf
2nd-or-ocþ-orþ-of
3rd celestial-ir
3rd terrestrial-jos
3rd human-ran-lor-ren
3rd epicene-ac-erþ-∅
Reflexive-lef
Reciprocal-rin
Table 3: Ancillary object affixes (for syllabic ends).

(The suffix for an explicit ancillary object is ⟦-s⟧ after a vowel or a ⟦-l⟧.)

If both the main and ancillary objects are specified as noun phrases to an attributive relational, then the ancillary object is eclipsed and follows the main object.

Finite forms

A relational can be used predicatively using a finite form that attaches it to a scaffolding verb, either affirmative or negative. Thus the relational acts like a verb syntactically.

The anatomy of the finite form of a relational is [<motion prefix>] + <conjunct form> + <finite form of scaffolding verb>. The scaffolding verb can be either ⟨eþit⟩ (for the affirmative) or ⟨telit⟩ (for the negative).

The motion prefix is ⟦ar-⟧ for motion toward something and ⟦as-⟧ for for motion away from something.

The relational ⟨es⟩ inside changes to ⟨el⟩ when in a finite form; likewise, ⟨car⟩ outside changes to ⟨caþ⟩.

The object affix on the scaffolding verb refers to the main object in divalent relationals. In trivalent relationals, it refers to the main object by default, but if the main object is explicitly specified as a noun phrase, then the object affix refers to the ancillary object instead.

If the ancillary object is specified as a noun phrase, then it is preceded by the particle ⟨os⟩ and eclipsed.

If a relational is a target of an auxiliary, then the scaffolding verb contracts to ⟦-is⟧ for ⟨eþit⟩ and ⟦-cest⟧ for ⟨telit⟩. If such a relational previously governed the dative, then it now governs the accusative in this case.

Immediately before a so-particle, the unmarked form of a relational is always used in place of the finite form if (S) is in the third person.

Nominalized forms

The nominalized form of a verb describes the action referenced by the verb. In contrast, the nominalized form of a relational describes the subject involved in the state described. The resulting noun is a second-declension ⟦-er⟧ noun (with Λ = ⟦e⟧) for celestial relationals and a third-declension ⟦-os⟧ noun for terrestrial relationals.

Let B be the absolute form plus the motion suffix. Then if B contains only one full syllable and its final bridge consists of at most one consonant and no ⟦j⟧, then the N stem is Bal⟧, the L stem is either Bel⟧ or Bil⟧, and the S stem is Bal⟧. In particular, the L stem is Bil⟧ if the last vowel in B is ⟦e⟧ or ⟦ê⟧ and Bel⟧ otherwise.

Otherwise, if B ends with a vowel, then the N stem is Bs⟧ and the S stem is Bd⟧. The L stem is derived from the N stem by doing the following:

If B has two or more full syllables and does not end with a vowel, then the N stem is B, and the S stem is B. The L stem depends on the motion suffix:

A genitive on a nominalized form of a relational indicates the object of the state described.

Interactions with predicate modifiers

A noun phrase in the accusative case plus the clitic ⟨=’po⟩ is a predicate modifier that acts on relationals implying separation between two objects (spatially or temporally) and describes the degree to which they are separated. For nouns that are units of measure other than ⟨enva⟩ or ⟨elva⟩, using the semblative case has the equivalent effect as ⟨=’po⟩.

The particle ⟨pâ⟩ directly before a relational describing a spatial relationship can be translated as directly or precisely. With the relational ⟨nîs⟩ describing a span of time over which an action takes place, ⟨pâ⟩ implies that the action is continuous.

Prefixing ⟨do-⟩ to a relational switches the order of (S) and (O); the gender, bias, and governed case are preserved. Such a relational is used only on an attributive or nominalized form. That is, the same prefix on a finite relational is interpreted as a causative prefix as usual.

A tour of relationals

This section gives an overview of the relationals of Ŋarâþ Crîþ.

Spatial relationals

RelationalGloss
artoward
jasaway from
nîsthrough
âŋabending toward
esinside
caroutside of
ilon top of
sênaabove
čilon (a vertical surface)
desabelow
etorin front of
þonin the midst of, in the middle of
cþararound, surrounding
cþarnîsrevolving around
meþostaking a winding path around
fannext to, beside
dełirnext to a body of water
nerłabetween
tfel (3val)across
lefperpendicular to
fansênaabove by an offset
Table 4: Spatial relationals in Ŋarâþ Crîþ.

Some words denoting such relations are verbs instead of relationals:

Temporal relationals

RelationalGloss
tectobefore
mîrafter
nîsduring, while
eltby, no later than [(S) is completed on or before the time (O)]
Table 5: Temporal relationals in Ŋarâþ Crîþ.

Some words denoting such relations are verbs instead of relationals:

Syntactic relationals

These relationals are used solely for syntactic support.

Mathematical relationals

These relationals denote mathematical relations.

Some words denoting such relations are verbs instead of relationals:

Other relationals