ŋaren crîþa 9 vlefto: Ŋarâþ Crîþ v9

Verbs

Predicates can be divided into independent verbs (iverbs) and relationals. In this chapter, we look at verbs; the next chapter covers relationals.

FeatureIndependent verbsRelationals
SemanticsCan indicate an action or stateCan indicate a state in relation to another entity
Valency1 – 3 argumentsUsually 2 arguments, but occasionally 3
Case frameNominative, plus possibly accusative and dative arguments depending on the verbNominative plus dative by default; the second argument can be accusative to change the meaning to involve motion towards the object or abessive for motion away from it
Finite formFinite conjugationsAttached to a scaffolding verb
Modifying nounsParticiple forms (marked for case of shared noun in both the embedded and the main clause, as well as the gender of the shared noun in the main clause)Lemma form or modified, depending on bias
Modifying verbsConverbal formsLemma form or modified, depending on bias
Nominalized formParticle + infinitive?
Table 1: Comparison between independent verbs and relationals.

The adnominal and adverbial forms of a predicate are collectively called modifying forms.

Valency and case frame

All predicates have at least a nominative-case argument (the subject). Verbs are classified into five valency classes:

Note that the labels of “nominative”, “accusative”, and “dative” arguments are somewhat arbitrary; the role of each case depends on the verb in question. However, there are some general tendencies:

Predicate modifiers

Predicate modifiers take as input one or more predicates and output another predicate as a result. They include:

Verb categories

Predicates can mark the person and number of various arguments. First-person dual or plural arguments marked this way are also distinguished by clusivity. Whenever this is allowed, it might be possible to instead specify a reflexive or reciprocal argument.

Ŋarâþ Crîþ has two tenses: present (more precisely, nonpast) and past. In addition to the present, the present tense covers the future as well as the immediate past.

The present tense is also used as a narrative present: in stories, the past tense is used only for events that had happened before the current point.

Ŋarâþ Crîþ has two aspects: imperfective and perfective. The imperfective aspect is used for ongoing (such as progressive or habitual) actions.

In conjugation, aspects can be labeled as direct or indirect. The perfective aspect is used for completed actions. The direct aspect is imperfective for the present tense and perfective for the past tense; the inverse aspect is the other aspect.

Inflection of verbs

A verb has six stems: I (infinitive), N (nonpast), P (past), R (nominative-rcase relative), Q (other relative), and L (locative). In addition, it has one thematic vowel, Θ, which is either ⟦a⟧ or ⟦i⟧.

The primary lemma form of a verb is its infinitive, which is always IΘt⟧.

If the stem of a verb ends with a vowel that is the same as the initial vowel of the following affix or differs only in tone, then ⟦ħ⟧ is inserted as a bridge between them. This epenthesis applies to all verb forms and is implied whenever an abstract form is given.

Finite forms

Verbs can be divided into vitreous and resinous verbs based on the conjugation of their finite forms. Resinous verbs exhibit more fusion in the finite forms than vitreous verbs, and they have a few forms that are absent in vitreous verbs.

A third-person generic subject not specified elsewhere often corresponds to an impersonal subject.

Vitreous verbs

In vitreous verbs, there are two different affixes used depending on the aspect relative to the tense (Tables 2 & 3).

Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
1st excl.-Θτ-Θτn-Θφ-ΘτΦ·
1st incl.-Θτ · ηn-Θφ · η
2nd-Θφs-Θφns*-Θφr-ΘφΦ·
3rd-Θφ-Θφn-Θψ-u
Table 2: Conjugation of vitreous verbs according to the subject (direct aspect).
Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
1st excl.-Θτl-Θτnis-Θφcþis-ΘτΦ·
1st incl.-Θτ · ηnis-Θφ · ηcis
2nd-Θφres-Θφnsis-Θφris-ΘφΦ·
3rd-Θφl-Θφnis-Θψris-os
Table 3: Conjugation of vitreous verbs according to the subject (inverse aspect).

Present-tense forms use the N stem and past-tense forms use the P stem. For the past tense, there is an additional tense suffix if the person–number affix has only one vowel: ⟦-þ⟧ when the preceding affix ends with a vowel or ⟦-r⟧ and ⟦-ta⟧ otherwise. (To be precise, the empty coda is changed to ⟦-þ⟧, and ⟦-r⟧ is changed to ⟦-rþ⟧.) If the person–number affix contains two or more vowels, then there is no tense affix and Pt is used in place of P.

Additionally, in perfective forms, the verb is eclipsed.

The second-person dual direct suffix is ⟦-Θφns⟧ if there are no subsequent suffixes but ⟦-Θφn⟧ if there are.

The first- and second-person generic forms use phi consonants according to the stem used, possibly with fusion, but before ⟦ħ⟧-epenthesis.

An object affix can be added immediately after the person–number affix (i.e. before the tense affix if it is present) and shows the person and number of an accusative or dative argument. It is never necessary, but it cannot appear redundantly to an explicitly stated argument that is not postposed.

Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
1st excl.pepjopoten
1st incl.pjô
2ndvevivoves
3rd celestialle
3rd terrestriallu
3rd humanleslislos
3rd epicenelilolas
Reflexivecin
Reciprocalriþ
Table 4: Object affixes for vitreous verbs.

Resinous verbs

The resinous finite forms are described in Tables 58.

Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
1st excl.NΘτNΘτ · ηcNΘφþNΘτΦN
1st incl.NΘτcNΘφ · ηþ
2ndNΘφsNΘφviNΘφrNΘφΦN
3rdNε1NteNΘψNu
Table 5: Conjugation of resinous verbs according to the subject (present imperfective).
1 NΘφ if followed by an object affix.
Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
1st excl.NΘe1NaŋeNΘτnPΘτΦP
1st incl.NâgeNΘτ · ηr
2ndNeaNΘsteNΘφrisPΘφΦP
3rdNΘφ2NΘφnNΘψNos
Table 6: Conjugation of resinous verbs according to the subject (present perfective).
1 When the final bridge of N is empty, then this form is NpΘτ, with the final bridge being stripped from N.
2 The object affix is prefixed instead, and lenition occurs on the object affix instead of eclipsis.
Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
1st excl.PΘτlt1PnΘτsiPnΘτviNΘτΦNta
1st incl.PnecaPnΘτi
2ndPΘφPþΘφcPþΘφłΘτNΘφΦNta
3rdPþΘφl2PtΘφ3PþΘψrP
Table 7: Conjugation of resinous verbs according to the subject (past imperfective).
1 PΘτl when followed by an object affix.
2 PþΘφr when followed by an object affix.
3 PtΘφn when followed by an object affix.
Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
1st excl.PtΘτQtôrQΘτst1PΘτΦPta
1st incl.QtorQtełt2
2ndPtΘφsPtešiPtΘφ · γsPΘφΦPta
3rdPtΘφPtΘφriPtΘφlt3P
Table 8: Conjugation of resinous verbs according to the subject (past perfective).
1 QtΘτ · ηs when followed by an object affix.
2 Qtêłi when followed by an object affix.
3 PtΘφl when followed by an object affix.

Resinous verbs use object affixes at the end, but the forms used are different from those for vitreous verbs, and there are alternate forms if the object suffix follows ⟦-l⟧.

Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
1st excl.pepal (pae)ginspeł (peþ)
1st incl.pâl (paê)gîns
2ndvevel (ven)torveł (veþ)
3rd celestialli (gi)
3rd terrestrialrel
3rd humanli (gi)lec (geþ)ljen (gjan)
3rd epicenelec (geþ)lje (gja)
Reflexivecin
Reciprocalriþ (giþ)
Table 9: Object affixes for resinous verbs.

If the object affix is prefixed as in the present perfective third-person singular forms, then the first-person plural exclusive and inclusive forms become ⟦gin-⟧ and ⟦gîn-⟧. Additionally, if an object affix would otherwise be eclipsed, it is instead lenited.

Transfinite forms

On top of the finite forms, resinous verbs have transfinite forms, which encode additional categories. They may be syntactically finite or otherwise and receive object affixes as usual:

The active and passive gerundive forms are often used for future actions.

Participles (adnominal forms)

Participle forms of verbs are used in relative clauses. The common argument of a relative clause is the referent shared between the relative clause and the outer clause. Participles are then distinguished by:

and optionally, depending on the genus:

In general, participles with nominative rcase use the R stem, while participles with other rcases use the Q stem.

In terms of participle forms, verbs are first divided into genera, which describe the broad pattern of inflection, and within each genus into species.

Participles of genus I verbs mark for hgender but not for hnumber. Participles of genus II verbs mark for hnumber but not for hgender. Participles of genus III verbs mark for whether or not the hnumber is singular and mark for hgender only when the hnumber is singular.

A participle of a genus I verb with terrestrial hgender triggers a lenition in the noun it modifies if the noun follows the participle immediately.

Because participles agree with the heads of relative clauses, relative clauses can be moved away from their heads.

Participle forms can also take object affixes, but the affixes occur before the root in this case, and the vitreous set is used regardless of the verb’s material. If an object affix is present, then it describes a nominative, accusative, or dative argument in the embedded clause that is not the common argument. Again, an object affix cannot appear redundantly to an explicitly stated argument, and if an object affix would otherwise be eclipsed, it is instead lenited.

A semantically vague noun such as ⟨sar⟩ or ⟨nava⟩ can be used as the head of a relative clause. Alternatively, in informal language, the participle may be modified by a demonstrative determiner for the same purpose.

Genus I

Genus I participles distinguish rcase, hcase, and hgender.

Species I₁

Species I₁ specifies only the forms in which the rcase is nominative. The rest are derived from these as such:

If the stem ends with ⟦þ⟧ or ⟦ð⟧, then all ⟦þ⟧s in the above infixes are replaced with ⟦t⟧s.

Each species I₁ verb specifies a celestial ending and a terrestrial ending. The celestial ending is one of ⟦-a⟧, ⟦-e⟧, ⟦-o⟧, ⟦-an⟧, ⟦-en⟧, or ⟦-in⟧. The terrestrial ending can be ⟦-os⟧ or ⟦-or⟧ if the celestial ending ends in a vowel, and ⟦-on⟧ or ⟦-or⟧ if it ends in ⟦-n⟧.

For this species, let Λ be the vowel of the celestial ending, Σ its (possibly empty) coda, and Γ the coda of the terrestrial ending.

For nominative to locative hcases, the forms for terrestrial hgender are determined separately from the forms for other hgenders.

Σn
Γsrnr
Nominative-os-or-on-or
Accusative-on-on-anon-on
Dative-oþ-oþ-os-os
Genitive-el-el-el-el
Locative-orþ-orþ-ori-ori
Table 10: Terrestrial-hcase forms by ending type.
Σn
HgenderCelHumCelHum
Nominative-Λ-Λc-Λn-Λn
Accusative-Λn-ôr-Λna-Λa/ean
Dative-Λs-Λs-Λns-Λns
Genitive-Λγn-jôr-il-il
Locative-Λγs-Λγs-Λγs-Λγs
Table 11: Celestial- and human-hcase forms by ending type.

Species I₁ contains three sets of suffixes for the instrumental- and abessive-hcase forms (Table 12). The set to be used must be memorized for each verb; however, verbs whose R or Q stems contain labial consonants will generally not take the α-class endings, and those whose stems end with ⟦þ⟧ or ⟦ð⟧ take the δ-class endings if they would not otherwise be in class α.

CaseInstrumentalAbessive
HgenderCelTerHumCelTerHum
α-epa-epos-epac-eši-eši-ešic
β-(e)la-(e)lon-(e)lac-(e)na-(e)nor-(e)nac
γ-(e)la-(e)lon-(e)lac-(e)ta-(e)tor-(e)tac
δ-êl-êl-êl-eva-evor-evac
Table 12: Instrumental- and abessive-hcase endings.

In rcases other than nominative, the β- and γ-class instrumental suffixes lack the initial ⟦e⟧. That is, the infixes for these rcases become ⟦-aþl-⟧, ⟦-Λγþl-⟧, ⟦-Λγnl-⟧, ⟦-anþl-⟧, and ⟦-Λγnþl-⟧.

The abessive suffixes work similarly, except that the genitive-of-nominative-rcase infix becomes ⟦-ann-⟧ or ⟦-ant-⟧ instead. (Equivalently, these suffixes work as if they cause the stem plus rcase infix to be fused with their first consonant.)

Finally, the semblative forms have the affixes ⟦-eł⟧ for all three genders.

Species I₃

Species I₃ specifies the forms for the nominative, accusative, and genitive rcases. The genitive-rcase forms are derived from their non-genitive-rcase counterparts by fusing the appropriate stem with ⟦n⟧. This species contains two subspecies: w and x.

Subspecieswx
Hcase \ HgenderCelTerHumCelTerHum
Nominative rcase
Nominative-a-os-ac-iþ-os-icþ
Accusative-an-on-ôr-inþ-on-orþ
Dative-as-oþ-as-iþo-oþ-icþo
Genitive-er-or-er-ir-or-ir
Locative-ei-ei-ei-ei-ei-ei
InstrumentalSee below
AbessiveSee below
Semblative-et-ot-est-it-ot-ist
Accusative rcase
Nominative-e-ios-ec-aþ-avas-acþ
Accusative-en-osi-en-anþ-avan-arþ
Dative-es-ioþ-es-aþo-avaþ-acþo
Genitive-eri-ori-eri-ar-avar-ar
Locative-ami-ami-ami-ami-ami-ami
InstrumentalQt + nominative-rcase endings
AbessiveQt + nominative-rcase endings
Semblative-aþet-aþot-aþest-aþit-aþot-aþist
Dative rcase
Nominative-ae-ajos-ace-eþ-evas-ecþ
Accusative-aen-ajon-acen-enþ-evan-erþ
Dative-aes-ajoþ-aces-eþo-evaþ-ecþo
Genitive-ari-aôr-ari-er-evar-er
Locative-emi-emi-emi-emi-emi-emi
InstrumentalQþ + nominative-rcase endings
AbessiveQþ + nominative-rcase endings
Semblative-eþet-eþot-eþest-eþit-eþot-eþist
Table 13: Participle form inflections for species I₃.

Species I₃ uses the same instrumental and abessive affixes as I₁, except that the vowels in the β- and γ-class suffixes are never omitted.

Genus II

Genus II participles distinguish rcase, hcase, and hnumber.

Species II₄

Species II₄ specifies only the forms in which the rcase is nominative. The rest are derived from these as such:

The ending can be one of ⟦-a⟧, ⟦-e⟧, ⟦-o⟧, ⟦-as⟧, ⟦-es⟧, ⟦-ar⟧, ⟦-er⟧, ⟦-os⟧ or ⟦-or⟧, or ⟦-on⟧. The last three endings encompass the terrestrial ending set, and the others encompass the celestial ending set.

Let Λ be the vowel of the ending and Σ its (possibly empty) coda. Then the celestial ending set is as follows:

Hcase \ HnumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
Nominative-ΛΣ-Λc-Λπ-Λ+Φ·
Accusative-Λn-ôr-on-Λ+Φ·en
Dative-Λs1-tΛs-os-Λ+Φ·es
Genitive-Λγn-tΛγn-in-neΦ·
Locative-Λγs-Λγsta-is-eΦ·o
Instrumental-Λγls-Λγlþa-ils-eΦ·os
Abessive-Λγma-Λγnva-ima-elceΦ·
Semblative-it-icta-et-icþ
Table 14: Participle form inflections for species II₄ (celestial endings).
1 -o if Σ is ⟦s⟧.

The terrestrial ending set is as follows:

Hcase \ HnumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
Nominative-oΣ-oc-or1-u
Accusative-on2-ar-en-aΦ·
Dative-os3-ocþ-erþ-as
Genitive-el-acel-il-eΦ·
Locative-ecþ-ecþ-acþ-eceΦ·
Instrumental-els-elþa-ils-eΦ·os
Abessive-ema-enva-ima-elceΦ·
Semblative-ot-octos-ot-ocþ
Table 15: Participle form inflections for species II₄ (terrestrial endings). In this case, Λ is always ⟦o⟧.
1 -es when Σ is ⟦r⟧.
2 -an when Σ is ⟦n⟧.
3 -oþ when Σ is ⟦s⟧.

Species II₃

In species II₃, the stem is followed by the rcase infix, which come in two sets: ⟦-es- -est- -ist- -ens- -ent- -int-⟧ (s-infixes) and ⟦-ev- -eft- -ift- -env- -enf- -inf-⟧ (v-infixes).

The rcase infix is then followed by the hcase–hnumber suffix. The generic-hnumber forms are identical to the singular-hnumber forms.

Hcase \ HnumberSg. / Gc.DualPlural
Nominative-a-ac-o
Accusative-an-or-on
Dative-as-acþ-os
Genitive-en-er-in
Locative-al-al-al
Instrumental-aþ-aþ-oþ
Abessive-af / -ał-af / -ał-ef / -eł
Semblative-et-ecþ-it
Table 16: Hcase–hnumber suffixes for species II₃.

The abessive-hcase suffixes use ⟦f⟧ for the s-infixes and ⟦ł⟧ for the v-infixes.

Genus III

Genus I participles distinguish rcase and hcase. The forms with singular hnumber also distinguish hgender; otherwise, both hnumber and hgender are unspecified.

Species III₂

Species III₂ specifies only the forms in which the rcase is accusative or dative. The rest are derived from these as such:

HnumberSingularOther
Hcase \ HgenderCelestialTerrestrialHuman
Accusative rcase
Nominative-ar-on-ar-als
Accusative-an-anon-an-alna
Dative-arþ-os-as-arþ
Genitive-en-el-en-il
Locative-eca-ecos-eac-ego
Instrumental-eli-els-eli-ili
Abessive-eno-enos-eno-ene
Semblative-et-ot-est-et
Dative rcase
Nominative-or-eħon-or-els
Accusative-aħon-onon-aħon-ana
Dative-orþ-eħos-orþ-orþ
Genitive-in-il-in-in
Locative-oca-ecos-avac-avo
Instrumental-ore-ore-ore-ori
Abessive-one-one-one-oneþ
Semblative-aħet-aħot-aħest-aħet
Table 17: Participle form inflections for species III₂.

In addition, the R stem is used for both nominative and accusative rcases.

Converbs (adverbial forms)

Converbs are divided into two categories:

In both of these categories, the converbal clause and the main clause might not match in subject, but in that case, it must be made clear that the respective subjects are different.

Often, such a mismatch occurs because a non-subject argument in the converbal clause should become the subject in the main clause. If this is not already clear, then the clitic ⟨=’ul⟩ can be used on the argument in the converbal clause to mark that it is also the subject of the main clause.

Sometimes, the subject in the converbal clause should not be the subject of a main clause. If this is not otherwise clear, then the clitic ⟨=’els⟩ can be used on the converb to make it so.

In addition, Ŋarâþ Crîþ has so-clauses, which also act adverbially.

Reduced coordination

In reduced coordination, the converb is formed through an affix on the verb stem indicating the conjunction in question instead of the usual conjugation:

Operation \ Infinitive ending-at-it
X and Y-ame-ime
X or Y (inclusive)-age-ige
X or Y (exclusive)-are-ire
X to some and Y to others-amec-imec
Table 18: Affixes on the converb for reduced conjunction, where X is the statement stated by the converbal clause and Y the statement stated by the main clause.

After an onset containing a voiced obstruent, the ⟦-age⟧ and ⟦-ige⟧ affixes become ⟦-ahe⟧ and ⟦-ihe⟧, respectively. After an onset of ⟦m⟧, affixes beginning with ⟦-ame-⟧ and ⟦-ime-⟧ have these replaced with ⟦-ase⟧ and ⟦-ise⟧, respectively.

Emergent coordination

In emergent coordination, the final ⟦-t⟧ of the infinitive form of the first verb is replaced with ⟦-rþ⟧ if the onset of the following word is either null or a plosive alone, or ⟦-þ⟧ otherwise. (Note that the operation is necessarily “and”.)

For the verb ⟨minait⟩ be alone, the final vowel is changed to ⟦e⟧.

The use of emergent coordination can be seen as a serial verb construction.

So-clauses

So-clauses are adverbial clauses consisting of a finite verb phrase followed by a conjunction such as ⟨so⟩, called the so-particle:

Nominalized forms

Table 19 lists the nominalized forms of a verb by case and mood.

Case \ MoodIndicativeSubjunctive
Nominativeo IΘt
Accusativeon IΘt
DativeIiltIiΦIos
Genitiveen IΘt
LocativeLevesa ●IΘt
InstrumentalLevecasec ●IΘt
AbessiveLeveþaseþ ●IΘt
Semblativeit IΘteti IΘt
Table 19: Nominalized forms by case and mood.

In the nominative case, the particle ⟨o⟩ is optional but may be retained for clarity.

The mood distinction encodes a difference in modality in the dative and semblative cases only. In the locative, instrumental, and abessive, it encodes a distinction between adverbial and adnominal forms.

In the dative case, the indicative mood is used for realis actions, as well as general activities:

(1)
šinaf d·endilt idesa neman racru.
šin-af
all-nom.gc
d·end-ilt
hunt-inf.dat
i-desa
adn-below
nem-an
some-acc.sg
racr-u.
know-3gc
Everybody knows (something) about hunting.

The subjunctive mood, of course, indicates irrealis actions. A similar distinction exists for the semblative case.

Some of the nominalized forms are made of a particle plus the infinitive form, possibly mutated.

(2)
on mêgennančat triłepjô.
on
inf.acc
mê<genna>nč-at
eat<ddt.rec>-inf
trił-e-pjô.
recommend-1sg-1du.incl
I suggest to us to eat more slowly.
(3)
eleþ šileifos mîrm·oru.
el-eþ
sun-nom.sg
šile-ifos
shine-inf.dat.subj
mîrm·or-u.
predict-3gc
It is predicted that the sun will shine.
(4)
cþereve elnat łanes.
cþer-eve
write-inf.loc
eln-at
neat-inf
łan-es.
must-2sg
When you write, you must do it neatly.

In such a nominalized form of an auxiliary verb, the particle also precedes all other verbs in the auxiliary chain. In such a nominalized VP of a non-auxiliary verb, the last word of a noun phrase attached to it may be moved between the particle and the infinitive. In this case, the moved word takes the same mutation that the infinitive would.

When a nominalized VP in the locative, instrumental, or abessive case is an object of a modifying relational, the nominative forms are used.

A pronominal subject of a nominalized VP is marked using a possessive clitic on the infinitive:

(5)
trecai v·alilt’pe nîs faras miłersos nostecþis.
trec-ai
field-loc.pl
v·al-ilt=’pe
reside-inf.dat=poss.1
nîs
through
far-as
often-loc.di
miłers-os
pasture-loc.pl
nos-t-ecþis.
walk-past-1pl.excl.inv
During our residence in the country we often walked in the pastures.
(6)
anoþ varmjoneve’pe intaras môvarþ sarħi menaþ.
an-oþ
sky-dat.sg
varmjon-eve=’pe
observe-inf.loc=poss.1
intar-as
void-loc.sg
môv-arþ
float-rel.acc,dat.cel
sarħ-i
thing-dat.sg
men-a-þ.
see-1sg-past
When I looked into the sky, I saw something floating in the air.

Like participles, nominalized verbs can take object affixes before the verb stem. The vitreous set is used regardless of material. Mutations apply to the start of the word, not to the start of the stem: ⟨p·emečilt⟩, not *⟨pem·ečilt⟩. As usual, an object prefix that would be eclipsed is lenited instead: ⟨p·emičeve⟩, not *⟨vpemičeve⟩. Object affixes occasionally stand in for nominative arguments; in this case, the singular set is always used.

The genitive-case nominalized form is sometimes used to form another type of relative clause, especially when the common argument in the embedded clause is an oblique argument. This use is chiefly informal, with the participle form (perhaps in an applicative voice) being preferred in formal language.

The instrumental-case nominalized form is used as a resultative:

(7)
šinen m·olon mêntreveca sâna elto gasnelsal.
šin-en
all-gen.sg
m·ol-on
nut-acc.co
mêntr-eveca
eat-inf.inst
sân-a
bear-nom.sg
elt-o
river-dat.sg
g\asnels-al.
pfv\return-3sg.inv
Having eaten all of the nuts, the bear returns to the river.

The abessive case, in contrast, is used to indicate the lack of a certain concurrent action:

(8)
le neffełen voðeveþa cehas.
le
imp
neff-ełen
sheep-acc.gc
voð-eveþa
buy-inf.abess
ceh-as.
come-2sg
Come here without buying any sheep.

Irregular verbs

The conjugation of most verbs can be derived from at most seven principal parts. Nevertheless, a few verbs are truly irregular.

APN-irregular verbs

As the name suggests, APN-irregular verbs specify finite forms according to aspect (relative to tense), person, and number. All APN-irregular verbs are vitreous; object suffixes apply as usual, while the past suffix is always ⟦-þ⟧ or ⟦-ta⟧ – that is, Pt is never used.

eþit, ve, velta, verła, verłena, vepraþos, gispeve, …

Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
Direct aspect
1st excl.vevenvjaþvef
1st incl.veacvea
2ndvesvesenvełarvełaf
3rdvełavełanvonver
Inverse aspect
1st excl.velvinsvjaþisvesif
1st incl.veacelvarel
2ndverþvinseverisvełesaf
3rdvełalvełansveronvros
Table 20: Conjugation of eþit, ve, velta, verła, verłena, vepraþos, gispeve, …, listing the irregular finite forms.

eseþit, efa, efaþ, esperła, esperłena, espeþraþos, gedispeve, …

The forms of this verb, which is the inchoative form of ⟨eþit⟩, are independent of aspect.

Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
1st excl.efaesonesoþesef
1st incl.isteise
2ndsosessenesołaresaf
3rdesołaesołanespoeris
Table 21: Conjugation of eseþit, efa, efaþ, esperła, esperłena, espeþraþos, gedispeve, …, listing the irregular finite forms.

telit, ce, celta, cerła, cerłena, cirłaþos, dtołeve, …

Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
Direct aspect
1st excl.cecenčaþcef
1st incl.cjorcea
2ndcescesencełarcełaf
3rdcełacełancþoncir
Inverse aspect
1st excl.celcinsčaþiscesif
1st incl.tacelcjarel
2ndcerþcinseceriscełesaf
3rdcełalcełansceþencþaros
Table 22: Conjugation of telit, ce, celta, cerła, cerłena, cirłaþos, dtołeve, …, listing the irregular finite forms.

varit, tan, oveþ, saltan, salteši, sortaþon, voreve, …

Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
Direct aspect
1st excl.tantartaretanfe
1st incl.târtâre
2ndtastasentaitasfe
3rdtehatehantejentoru
Inverse aspect
1st excl.oveovinsovicþoveł
1st incl.orinsoricþ
2ndopresovesisoverisovereł
3rdovelovensoveltvoris
Table 23: Conjugation of varit, tan, oveþ, saltan, salteši, sortaþon, voreve, …, listing the irregular finite forms.

nepit, nea, nepelta, nelpa, nelpeta, nolpaþos, nolpeve, …

Person \ NumberSingularDualPluralGeneric
Direct aspect
1st excl.neaneannepacþnêf
1st incl.nefênnepâcþ
2ndnepasnepansneparnepał
3rdnaenepanneponepu
Inverse aspect
1st excl.nepelnenfenencþisnêf
1st incl.nenfôrnencþîs
2ndnefrasnefrastnefrisnepał
3rdnaełnaensnaresnepos
Table 24: Conjugation of nepit, nea, nepelta, nelpa, nelpeta, nolpaþos, nolpeve, …, listing the irregular finite forms.

Interactions with predicate modifiers

Comparatives

Given a verb, the derived verb prefixed with ⟦mir△-⟧ (⟦ła△-⟧) means ‘(S) performs the action in question to a greater (lesser) degree than (O) by a margin of (I)’:

(9)
mirvesralo.
mir-vesr-a-lo.
cmp-strong-1sg-3pl
I am stronger than they are.

If the base action mentions a direct or indirect object, then the argument is retained in the clause eclipsed:

(10)
#môra #saþon giviner âreþþas mirm·ečaþ.
#môr-a
name-nom.sg
#saþ-on
name-acc.sg
g\ivin-er
cdarg\mushroom-acc.pl
â-reþþas
nnom-four.dat.cel
mir-m·eč-a-þ.
cmp.gt-find-3sg-past
#môra found four more mushrooms than #saþo.

The verbs ⟨mirit⟩ greater than and ⟨łavrit⟩ less than also exist.

Equal comparisons are formed by using the relational ⟨peŋan⟩ whose object is the noun phrase to which another, of the same case, is being compared:

(11)
#môra #saþo peŋan vadanor mečaþ.
#môr-a
name-nom.sg
#saþ-o
name-nom.sg
peŋan
cmp.eq
vad-anor
tuber-acc.pl
meč-a-þ.
find-3sg-past
#môra found as many tubers as #saþo.

Superlatives are formed using the relational ⟨îþ⟩, which takes a genitive object:

(12)
#môra rascen îþ raga.
#môr-a
name-nom.sg
rasc-en
family-gen.sg
îþ
sup
rag-a.
tall-3sg
#môra is the tallest in their family.

Voice

The default voice is the active voice. There is no passive voice in Ŋarâþ Crîþ because the subject may be omitted instead:

(13)
+tjare siljes šeproþ.
+tjar-e
(name)-acc.sg
silj-es
afternoon-loc.sg
šepr-oþ.
execute-3gc.past.pfv
+tjaris was executed in the afternoon.
(14)
rešitas tfoson elens’po fêtecto gcemuþ.
rešit-as
cloak-dat.sg
tfos-on
cross_parent-acc.sg
el-ens=’po
year-acc.sg=sep
fê-tecto
3gc-before
g\cem-u-þ.
pfv\give-3sg-past
The cloak was given to my (mother/father) a year ago.

The causative voice

The causative voice is formed by prefixing ⟦do-⟧. It adds a ‘cause’ argument to the verb as the subject, changing its valency.

The causative prefix can function either as an inflectional affix or a derivational one:

(15)
ša entas gðenic’ve ndoelpanveþ?
ša
int
ent-as
that_thing.cel-dat.sg
gðen-ic=’ve
parent-nom.du=poss.2
n\do-elp-an-ve-þ?
pfv\caus-wear-3du-2sg-past
Did your parents make you wear that?
(16)
le jonas tê vrêman docjašas.
le
imp
jon-as
now-loc.di
that.cel
vrêm-an
book-acc.sg
do-cjaš-as.
caus-fall-2sg
Drop that book right now.

When two consecutive causative prefixes are added to a verb, then they take the form ⟦reld·o-⟧:

(17)
efreþ têrmasor reld·odranlêta.
efr-eþ
commander-nom.sg
têrm-asor
hostage-dat.pl
reld·o-dranl-ta.
caus.caus-die-3sg.past.pfv
The commander ordered the hostages to be killed.

Note that ⟨têrmon⟩ is in the dative case. If it were in the accusative case instead, then the meaning would be different:

(18)
efreþ têrmanor reld·odranlêta.
efr-eþ
commander-nom.sg
têrm-anor
hostage-acc.pl
reld·o-dranl-ta.
caus.caus-die-3sg.past.pfv
The commander ordered the hostages to kill.

In addition, the causative prefix and a terminative prefix ⟦er○-⟧ immediately following it fuse into ⟦dar○-⟧:

(19)
mêva lê gedesos niðes ndarc·atlepeþ.
mêv-a
rain-nom.co
this.cel
g\edes-os
assignment-dat.sg
nið-es
early_time-loc.di
n\dar-c·atl-e-pe-þ.
caus.pfv\term-complete-3sg-1sg-past
I finished the assignment early because of the rain.

The applicative voices

Ŋarâþ Crîþ has various applicative voices, which promote an oblique adjunct (either a noun phrase in a non-core case or an adverbial relational phrase) to the dative case. The former dative argument, if present, is demoted to where the oblique was.

Case or relationPrefix
Locativesi-
Instrumentalca-
Abessiveþa-
Semblativeħit-
arla-
jassa-
nîsna-
ucħic-
roc, rilletar-
Table 25: Applicative prefixes in Ŋarâþ Crîþ

The applicative voices are primarily used to relativize an oblique argument by promoting it into the dative case.

(20)
melco pecacatleþanon om inorelt clačirþ osjas &taran rema þal!
melc-o
parallel_parent-nom.sg
pe-ca-catl-eþanon
1sg-appl.inst-hit-rel.dat,acc.ter
om
that.ter
inor-elt
stick-acc.sv
clač-irþ
break-ser
os-jas
3sg.ter-from
&tar-an
woodchip-acc.co
rem-a
make-1sg
þal!
assert
I’ll break that stick my (dad/mom) hit me with and turn it into woodchips!
(21)
#mjôras sieristeþo #flirora cadils nelsit ħarte.
#mjôr-as
(name)-loc.sg
si-erist-eþo
appl.loc-meet-rel.dat,dat.cel
#fliror-a
(name)-nom.sg
cad-ils
island-dat.sg
nels-it
go-inf
ħar-te.
do_again-3sg.past.pfv
#flirora went once more to the island where they met #môra.

They are also used to make an oblique argument a shifted subject of an auxiliary verb or relational:

(22)
artfoteþa þanelsit pečit rjotilesta.
artfoþ-eþa
city-abess.sg
þa-nels-it
appl.abess-go-inf
peč-it
avoid-inf
rjot-i-les-ta.
fail-3pl-3sg.hum-past
She couldn’t stop them from going to the city without her.
(23)
eltin šimerin cþîšari fjones alals âŋa cþîfsocon siveła.
elt-in
river-gen.sg
šim-erin
end-acc.sg
cþîš-ecþ
near-rel.nom,loc.sg
fjon-es
place-loc.sg
al-als
east-dat.di
âŋa
bending
cþîfsoc-on
acute_angle-nom.sg
si-veła.
appl.loc-exist.3sg
Near the mouth of the river, its course turns sharply towards the East.

In (22) and (23), the dative argument is understood to be the shifted subject by the use of the applicative.

Auxiliary verbs

The verb modified by an auxiliary verb is called its target, which appears in the infinitive form immediately before the auxiliary verb. The particle ⟨fel⟩ can stand in place of a target if one is not specified. In addition, the target of an auxiliary verb can be an auxiliary verb itself, with its own target ad infinitum.

A clause using an auxiliary verb may select a shifted subject ((Š)) among the nominative, accusative, and dative arguments. The shifted subject may have a special role in the meaning of an auxiliary verb, such as carrying the volition for the performance or nonperformance of the target action.

An auxiliary is positive definite (negative definite) if the truth of the action or state described implies that the action or state described by the target is true (false). It is indefinite if neither such implication holds.

Modal auxiliaries

Modal auxiliaries can be classified by their force and flavor. Ŋarâþ Crîþ distinguishes the following flavors:

The modal auxiliaries of Ŋarâþ Crîþ according to this classification is shown in Table 26.

There are a handful of modal auxiliary verbs that do not fit neatly into the grid above:

Degree auxiliaries

Degree auxiliaries show the extent to which the target action or state holds:

A subset of degree auxiliaries are negative auxiliaries, which are used to negate the target in some way. Negative auxiliaries are necessarily negative definite, while other degree auxiliaries are positive definite.

Aspectual auxiliaries

Other auxiliary verbs indicate aspect. Most such auxiliaries are positive definite.

Others

Explicitly specifying the shifted subject

Although the shifted subject is usually clear from the context, it is sometimes necessary to specify explicitly which argument it is. The rotarg particles can be used immediately before the target of an auxiliary verb in order to assign each of (S), (O), and (I) to the nominative, accusative, and dative cases, specifying the nominative-case argument to be (Š).

FormGlossNominative (= (Š))AccusativeDative
isrot0(S)(O)(I)
pa○rot1(O)(I)(S)
jâ●rot2(I)(S)(O)
Table 27: The rotarg particles.

For instance, ⟨cengrit⟩ is glossed as (S) throws (O) at (I) – that is, (S) refers to the thrower, (O) refers to the object being thrown, and (I) refers to the target toward which it is thrown. In ⟨is cengrit⟩, the thrower is specified in the nominative case, the object thrown is in the accusative, and the target in the dative; thus, it can be glossed as (S) throws (O) at (I) with the constraint that (S) will be the same as the (Š) for an auxiliary verb.

In ⟨pa c·engrit⟩, the thrower is specified in the dative case, the object thrown is in the nominative, and the target is in the accusative. This phrase can be glossed as (I) throws (S) at (O) and would be used as the target of an auxiliary verb if (Š) should refer to the object being thrown.

Likewise, in ⟨jâ gcengrit⟩, the thrower is specified in the accusative case, the object thrown is in the dative, and the target is in the nominative. This phrase can be glossed as (O) throws (I) at (S) and would be used as the target of an auxiliary verb if (Š) should refer to the target at which something is thrown.

Modality

Most verb forms can be used in both realis and irrealis contexts:

(24)
eši mêvan têmit ħar.
eši
here.loc.di
mêv-an
rain-acc.co
têm-it
precipitate-inf
ħar-∅.
do_again-3sg
It is raining here again.
(25)
enven sodas mêvan têma so mîþanelên.
env-en
day-gen.sg
sod-as
next-loc.sg
mêv-an
rain-acc.co
têm-a
precipitate-3sg
so
if
mîþanel-ên.
play_mîþanela-1du.incl
If it rains tomorrow, we’ll play mîþanela.
(26)
vesro avona celcorin ndofonraþ.
vesr-o
strong-rel.nom,nom.sg
avon-a
wind-nom.di
celc-orin
building-acc.sg
n\do-fonr-a-þ.
pfv\caus-collapse-3sg-past
The strong wind caused the building to collapse.
(27)
ŋepriłir vesrelta so fonrit vpečaþ viþca.
ŋeprił-ir
support-nom.di
vesr-el-ta
strong-3sg.inv-past
so
if
fonr-it
collapse-inf
v\peč-a-þ
pfv\avoid-3sg-past
viþca.
cond
If the supports were stronger, then it would not have collapsed.

The exception to this property are the dative- and semblative-case nominalized forms, which have separate indicative and subjunctive forms.

The following sections cover modalities that are not covered by auxiliary verbs.

Imperative

Imperative sentences are formed using the headp ⟨le⟩. The verb in the main clause is conjugated as usual, except that the aspect is always imperfective. In addition, resinous verbs have special forms for second-person singular subjects.

(28)
le enven saden cintos reftos etor cehas.
le
imp
env-en
day-gen.sg
sad-en
next-gen.sg
cint-os
morning-loc.sg
reft-os
library-dat.sg
etor
in_front_of
ceh-as.
arrive-2sg
Arrive in front of the library tomorrow morning.
(29)
le cupas jorniłtau.
le
imp
cup-as
immediately-loc.di
jornił-þau.
stand-imp.2sg
Stand up immediately.

When used with a first-person verb, ⟨le⟩ marks the hortative. In this case, the subject ending of the main verb is always put in the first-person exclusive, regardless of the actual clusivity of the subject, unless the verb is followed by a tailp.

(30)
le nêrgim·oþena dofenran.
le
imp
nêrgim·oþ-ena
living_room-acc.sg
do-fenr-an.
caus-clean-1du.excl
Let’s clean the living room.
(31)
le nelsâcþ þal!
le
imp
nels-âcþ
go-1pl.incl
þal!
assert
Let’s go!

To command the listener to take a non-subject role of a verb, the verb ⟨menat⟩ (S) sees, makes sure of (I) is used.

(32)
le felja reflit p·ečiłos menes.
le
imp
felj-a
this_idea-nom.sg
refl-it
surprise-inf
p·eč-iłos
avoid-inf.dat
men-es.
see-2sg
Don’t be surprised by this idea.

Conditional

Conditional sentences are formed using the tailp ⟨viþca⟩:

(33)
šinen ðês lârne cermjôri visêrče viþca.
šin-en
all-gen.sg
ðês
occurrence-loc.sg
lâr-ne
cat-acc.sg
cermjôr-i
dog-dat.sg
visêrč-e
choose-1sg
viþca.
cond
I would always choose a dog over a cat.